They usually mix : a local anesthetic (lidocaine )
+ An inhalation anesthetic (ketamin) + amphetamines (methylphenidate )+ fillers (caffeine..)
to be continue …..
The most widely used stimulants are
- caffeine (in coffee, tea, and cola beverages)
- nicotine (in cigarettes)
These chemical relatives of cocaine act by blocking the voltage-gated Na+ channels of sensory neurons preventing them from generating action potentials. [Discussion] They are injected or applied topically and block transmission not only in pain-conducting neurons but in others as well (causing general numbness).
Most of these are volatile hydrocarbons or ethers. Diethyl ether and chloroform are seldom used today, having been replaced by safer alternatives such as isofluorane, a fluorinated ether.
Some, like isofluorane, bind to inhibitory GABA receptors) in the brain hyperpolarizing, and thus decreasing the sensitivity of, postsynaptic neurons.
Others, like ketamine, block the activity of excitatory glutamate receptors.